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How to Effectively Manage Data Mutations with UseMutation React Query

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Rakesh Purohit

ReactJS Developer Advocate
September 6, 2023

Rakesh Purohit

September 6, 2023

Welcome back, fellow React developers! Today, we are diving deep into the world of React Query, exploring a crucial hook called useMutation. We'll explore how this powerful tool can enhance your React applications.

What is useMutation React Query?

useMutation is a fundamental hook in the React Query library, which is part of the TanStack family of libraries. It enables you to manage asynchronous data mutations seamlessly within your React applications. Whether you're building a simple to-do list app or a complex social network, useMutation will be your trusty companion.

The Difference Between useMutation and useQuery in React Query

Before we dive into the nitty-gritty details of useMutation, let's clarify the key distinction between useMutation and useQuery.

useQuery is primarily used for fetching data from a server, commonly associated with HTTP GET requests. On the other hand, useMutation is specifically designed for mutating or modifying data, often associated with HTTP POST, PUT, DELETE, or any other data-changing operation.

How Does useMutation Work?

Now that we know what useMutation is and its role, let's explore how it works under the hood. This hook relies on a mutation function, commonly referred to as the mutate function. The mutate function sends a request to the server, performs the mutation, and updates the query cache.

Let's break down the key elements:

1. Mutation Function

A mutation function is a critical part of useMutation. It encapsulates the logic for making the actual HTTP request to the server. It takes any necessary variables, such as the data you want to update, and sends it to the server.

Here's a simplified example of a mutation function:

In this example, createTodoMutation sends a POST request to create a new todo and returns the response data.

2. useMutation Hook

The useMutation hook takes two essential arguments: the mutation function and a configuration object. This configuration object allows you to customize how the mutation behaves, such as handling errors or invalidations.

Here's an example of using useMutation:

In this example, we import useMutation, create an instance of it, and provide our createTodoMutation function as the first argument. The configuration object allows us to define callback functions for various stages of the mutation lifecycle.

3. Query Cache and Data Update

Once the mutation is executed successfully, React Query automatically updates the query cache with the new data. This means that any components using the same query key will automatically re-render with the updated data, ensuring a responsive user interface.

One of the crucial aspects of handling data mutations is error management. When an error occurs during a mutation, it's essential to provide clear feedback to the user and handle the error gracefully. React Query makes this task remarkably straightforward.

The onError Callback

In the configuration object of the useMutation hook, you can define an onError callback function. This function gets triggered whenever an error occurs during the mutation.

Here's an example of using onError:

In this example, when an error occurs during the createTodoMutation, we log the error to the console. You can customize this further by displaying an error message to the user or triggering other actions as needed.

Optimistic Updates

Optimistic updates are a powerful way to provide instant feedback to users while waiting for the server response. With React Query's useMutation, implementing optimistic updates is a breeze.

The onMutate Callback

The onMutate callback allows you to make optimistic updates to your data before the mutation is even sent to the server. This gives your users a seamless and responsive experience.

Here's an example:

In this example, when onMutate is called, we optimistically update the UI by adding the new todo to the todos query result. We also return a context object containing the previous state to handle potential rollbacks in case of an error.

As your React project grows, you'll likely need to perform mutations in multiple places. To keep your code clean and maintainable, consider creating a custom hook for your mutations.

Here's an example of a custom hook for a todo mutation:

By creating a custom hook, you can easily reuse mutations across different components, making your codebase more modular and maintainable.

In real-world applications, mutations can become quite complex. You might need to update multiple pieces of data, make multiple requests, or deal with intricate business logic. Fortunately, React Query provides you with the tools to handle such scenarios effectively.

Multiple Mutations

React Query allows you to perform multiple mutations sequentially or in parallel. This is particularly useful when you need to update different parts of your data store or make several server requests at once.

Here's an example of performing multiple mutations sequentially:

const handleComplexMutation = async () => { const newTodo = await createTodoMutation.mutateAsync({ title: 'New Todo' });

In this example, we first create a new todo and then update it in two separate mutations.

Query Invalidation

Sometimes, a mutation can affect multiple queries in your application. React Query provides a convenient way to invalidate queries when a mutation succeeds to ensure that your UI remains consistent.

Here's how you can invalidate queries:

By calling queryClient.invalidateQueries('todos'), we signal React Query to refetch the 'todos' query when the mutation completes successfully.

Efficiency and performance are critical in any application. Let's explore some tips for optimizing your React applications when using useMutation.

Batch Mutations

If you have multiple mutations to perform, consider batching them into a single request. This reduces the number of network calls and can significantly improve performance.

Error Handling Strategies

Create a robust error-handling strategy. Depending on the nature of your application, you might need to retry failed mutations, display user-friendly error messages, or log errors for analysis.

Debouncing User Actions

Debouncing user actions can help prevent excessive mutations. If a user rapidly clicks a button that triggers a mutation, you can debounce the action to ensure that only one mutation is sent, reducing unnecessary server load.

Use Query Caching

Leverage query caching to reduce redundant server requests. React Query automatically caches query results, so utilize this feature to provide a snappy user experience.

The Bottom Line!

You've gained a comprehensive understanding of useMutation and its role in building robust and performant React applications. Whether you're creating a simple to-do app or a large-scale project, useMutation empowers you to manage data mutations with ease.

Now, armed with this knowledge, go forth and craft amazing, data-driven React applications. May your components render swiftly, your mutations be error-free, and your users be delighted with your seamless UI.

Thank you for joining us on this journey into the world of React Query and useMutation. Happy coding!

Frequently asked questions

Frequently asked questions

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